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Phytoestrogens have no effect on T levels. (Placebo controlled study).

Phytoestrogens have no effect on T levels. (Placebo controlled study).

Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis.

Hamilton-Reeves JM, Vazquez G, Duval SJ, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS, Messina MJ.

Department of Family, Consumer, and Nutrition Science, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether isoflavones exert estrogen-like effects in men by lowering bioavailable T through evaluation of the effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free T, and free androgen index (FAI) in men.

DESIGN: PubMed and CAB Abstracts databases were searched through July 1, 2008, with use of controlled vocabulary specific to the databases, such as soy, isoflavones, genistein, phytoestrogens, red clover, androgen, testosterone, and SHBG. Peer-reviewed studies published in English were selected if [1] adult men consumed soy foods, isolated soy protein, or isoflavone extracts (from soy or red clover) and [2] circulating T, SHBG, free T, or calculated FAI was assessed. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Isoflavone exposure was abstracted directly from studies.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Fifteen placebo-controlled treatment groups with baseline and ending measures were analyzed. In addition, 32 reports involving 36 treatment groups were assessed in simpler models to ascertain the results.

RESULT(S): No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model.

CONCLUSION(S): The results of this meta-analysis suggest that neither soy foods nor isoflavone supplements alter measures of bioavailable T concentrations in men.

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Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate suppresses androgen receptor expression without altering estrogen receptor-beta expression or serum hormonal profiles in men at high risk of prostate cancer.

Hamilton-Reeves JM, Rebello SA, Thomas W, Slaton JW, Kurzer MS.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soy protein isolate consumption on circulating hormone profiles and hormone receptor expression patterns in men at high risk for developing advanced prostate cancer. Fifty-eight men were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 protein isolates containing 40 g/d protein:
1) soy protein isolate (SPI+) (107 mg/d isoflavones);
2) alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI-) (<6 mg/d isoflavones); or
3) milk protein isolate (0 mg/d isoflavones). For 6 mo, the men consumed the protein isolates in divided doses twice daily as a partial meal replacement. Serum samples collected at 0, 3, and 6 mo were analyzed for circulating estradiol, estrone, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and free testosterone concentrations by RIA.

Prostate biopsy samples obtained pre- and postintervention were analyzed for androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-beta expression by immunohistochemistry. At 6 mo, consumption of SPI+ significantly suppressed AR expression but did not alter estrogen receptor-beta expression or circulating hormones. Consumption of SPI- significantly increased estradiol and androstenedione concentrations, and tended to suppress AR expression (P = 0.09).

Although the effects of SPI- consumption on estradiol and androstenedione are difficult to interpret and the clinical relevance is uncertain, these data show that AR expression in the prostate is suppressed by soy protein isolate consumption, which may be beneficial in preventing prostate cancer.

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Effects of a high dose, aglycone-rich soy extract on prostate-specific antigen and serum isoflavone concentrations in men with localized prostate cancer.

deVere White RW, Tsodikov A, Stapp EC, Soares SE, Fujii H, Hackman RM.

University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California 95616, USA.

The efficacy and safety of consuming high-dose isoflavone supplements for prostate cancer is not clear. A double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial was conducted in 53 men with prostate cancer enrolled in an active surveillance program. The treatment group consumed a supplement containing 450 mg genistein, 300 mg daidzein, and other isoflavones daily for 6 mo.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured in both groups at baseline, 3 mo, and 6 mo, and serum concentrations of genistein, daidzein, and equol were assessed at baseline and 6 mo in the treatment group. Following the completion of the 6-mo double-blind study, men were enrolled in a 6-mo open label trial with the same isoflavone-rich supplement, and PSA was measured at 3 and 6 mo. PSA concentrations did not change in either group after 6 mo or after 12 mo when the open-label study was included.

The 6 mo serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein (39.85 and 45.59 ╬╝mol/l, respectively) were significantly greater than baseline values and substantially higher than levels previously reported in other studies. Equol levels did not change. Although high amounts of aglycone isoflavones may result in significantly elevated serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein, these dietary supplements alone did not lower PSA levels in men with low-volume prostate cancer.

I'm a big fan of 50 Cent, or as we call him in Zimbabwe, four hundred million dollars.

Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Hussain M, Banerjee M, Sarkar FH, Djuric Z, Pollak MN, Doerge D, Fontana J, Chinni S, Davis J, Forman J, Wood DP, Kucuk O.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between soy intake and prostate cancer (Pca) risk. We have previously observed that soy isoflavone genistein induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of both androgen-sensitive and androgen-independent Pca cells in vitro. To determine the clinical effects of soy isoflavones on Pca we conducted a pilot study in patients with Pca who had rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.

Patients with Pca were enrolled in the study if they had either newly diagnosed and untreated disease under watchful waiting with rising PSA (group I) or had increasing serum PSA following local therapy (group II) or while receiving hormone therapy (group III). The study intervention consisted of 100 mg of soy isoflavone (Novasoy) taken by mouth twice daily for a minimum of 3 or maximum of 6 mo. Forty-one patients were enrolled (4 in group I, 18 in group II, and 19 in group III) and had a median PSA level of 13.3 ng/ml. Thirty-nine patients could be assessed for response. Soy isoflavone supplementation was given for a median of 5.5 (range 0.8-6) mo per patient.

Although there were no sustained decreases in PSA qualifying for a complete or partial response, stabilization of the PSA occurred in 83% of patients in hormone-sensitive (group II) and 35% of hormone-refractory (group III) patients. There was a decrease in the rate of the rise of serum PSA in the whole group (P = 0.01) with rates of rise decreasing from 14 to 6% in group II (P = 0.21) and from 31 to 9% in group III (P = 0.05) following the soy isoflavone intervention. Serum genistein and daidzein levels increased during supplementation from 0.11 to 0.65 microM (P = 0.00002) and from 0.11 to 0.51 microM (P = 0.00001), respectively.

No significant changes were observed in serum levels of testosterone, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or 5-OHmdU.

These data suggest that soy isoflavones may benefit some patients with Pca.

I'm a big fan of 50 Cent, or as we call him in Zimbabwe, four hundred million dollars.

Tomato and Soy?

Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Vaishampayan U, Hussain M, Banerjee M, Seren S, Sarkar FH, Fontana J, Forman JD, Cher ML, Powell I, Pontes JE, Kucuk O.

Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Dietary intake of lycopene and soy has been associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. In vitro studies with lycopene and genistein, a soy isoflavone, have shown induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth in androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3 and VeCaP) prostate cancer cell lines.

In a previous Phase II clinical trial in prostate cancer patients, we observed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) stabilization with soy isoflavone intake. In this Phase II clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of lycopene alone or in combination with soy isoflavones on serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer. To be eligible for the study, men with prostate cancer had to have rising serum PSA following local therapy or while on hormone therapy. Study population included 71 eligible patients who had 3 successive rising PSA levels or a minimum PSA of 10 ng/ml at 2 successive evaluations prior to starting therapy.

Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg of lycopene alone (n = 38) or together with a capsule containing 40 mg of a soy isoflavone mixture (n = 33) twice daily orally for a maximum of 6 mo. One patient on the lycopene arm did not receive therapy due to his inability to ingest the study pill. There was no decline in serum PSA in either group qualifying for a partial or complete response. However, 35 of 37 (95%) evaluable patients in the lycopene group and 22 of 33 (67%) evaluable patients in the lycopene plus soy isoflavone group achieved stable disease described as stabilization in serum PSA level.

The data suggest that lycopene and soy isoflavones have activity in prostate cancer patients with PSA relapse disease and may delay progression of both hormone-refractory and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. However, there may not be an additive effect between the 2 compounds when taken together. Future studies are warranted to further investigate the efficacy of lycopene and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer as well as the mechanism of potential negative interaction between them.

I'm a big fan of 50 Cent, or as we call him in Zimbabwe, four hundred million dollars.

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